LUXURY ECOLOGICAL COMMERCIAL CENTER
Building removable, reconfigurable, bioclimatic and with zero real energy consumption
Luis De Garrido. PhD Architect. PhD Computer Engineer. MsC Architect. MsC Urban Planning. Doctor Honoris Causa USMP
MAGIC FOREST is a shopping center for large luxury brands in the “Golden Mile” area of Seville, Spain
The building consists of 8 commercial floors, a commercial and social basement, and two garage floors. The roof is landscaped and protected by a structure that generates shade and cool, and incorporates thermal and photovoltaic solar collectors.
The shopping center has a very special architectural structure as it is intended to house small exclusive stores for large luxury brands.
Highest possible ecological level
MAGIC FOREST has been designed with the fundamental objective of achieving the most ecological building possible, trying to obtain the highest possible rating with the 39 ecological indicators established by Doctor Architect Luis De Garrido more than 25 years ago.
These indicators are as follows:
- Resource optimization. Natural and artificial
1.1. Level of use of natural resources
1.2. Level of use of durable materials
1.3. Level of use of recovered materials
1.4. Reuse capacity of the materials used
1.5. Level of use of reusable materials
1.6. Repair capacity of the materials used
1.7. Level of use of recycled materials
1.8. Recycling capacity of the materials used
1.9. Level of use of the resources used
- Decrease in energy consumption
2.1. Energy consumed in obtaining materials
2.2. Energy consumed in the transport of materials
2.3. Energy consumed in the transport of labor
2.4. Energy consumed in the building construction process
2.5 Energy consumed by the building throughout its useful life
2.6. Level of technological adaptation for the satisfaction of human needs
2.7. Energy efficiency of bioclimatic architectural design
2.8. Building thermal inertia level
2.9. Energy consumed in the process of demolition or dismantling of the building
- Promotion of natural energy sources
3.1. Level of use of solar-based technologies
3.2. Level of use of geothermal energy-based technologies
3.3. Level of use of technologies based on renewable energies due to imbalances in the physical system
- Reduction of waste and emissions
3.1. Level of waste and emissions generated in obtaining construction materials
3.2. Level of waste and emissions generated in the construction process
3.3. Level of waste and emissions generated in building maintenance
3.4. Level of waste and emissions generated in the demolition of buildings
- Increase of the quality of life of the occupants of the buildings
4.1. Emissions harmful to the natural ecosystem
4.2. Emissions harmful to human health
4.3. Number of diseases of building occupants
4.4. Degree of satisfaction and well-being of the occupants of the building
- Decrease of maintenance and cost of buildings
6.1. Level of adequacy between materials durability and their functional life cycle
6.2. Functional adequacy of the components
6.3. Resources consumed by the building in its daily activity
6.4. Energy consumed by the technological equipment of the building
6.5. Energy consumed in building accessibility
6.6. Waste energy consumed by the building when not occupied
6.7. Level of maintenance need in the building
6.8. Level of need for treatment of emissions and waste generated by the building
6.9. Economic cost in building construction
6.10. Social and economic environment
In a comparative way it should be mentioned that some of the best known environmental rating systems, such as LEED, only use 3 of these 39 ecological indicators.
Prefabricated and detachable construction
To achieve the highest possible ecological level, the building has been designed based solely on a small set of architectural elements that can be assembled and disassembled easily.
Recovery, repair and reuse of all components
All industrialized architectural elements have been designed so that they can be assembled and disassembled easily. In this way all the elements can be recovered, repaired and reused as many times as possible, thus ensuring that in the construction of the building the least possible amount of energy is used per unit of time, and also an infinite life cycle . In other words, with the lowest possible level of maintenance the building can last an infinite time, with the lowest possible energy consumption per unit of time.
Infinite life cycle
As a direct consequence of its ease of disassembly, the building can have an infinite life cycle, with the least possible maintenance per unit of time.
Thermal self-regulation without the need for heating appliances or air conditioning
Due to its advanced architectural design, the building is capable of thermal self-regulation, maintaining a constant interior temperature, capable of ensuring maximum comfort and well-being for its occupants. The building maintains a stable temperature that ranges between 24º C and 25º C every day of the year. Therefore the building does not need mechanical heating systems, or air conditioning, and has a very low energy consumption.
Optimal bioclimatic design that allows thermal regulation without energy consumption and with the least possible need for energy generating devices
Thanks to its special architectural design, MAGIC FOREST is able to regulate itself thermally, with hardly any energy consumption. That is, the building tends to heat itself in winter and cool itself in summer, without the need for electromechanical devices that consume energy.
Specifically, the following bioclimatic strategies have been used in its special design:
1.1. Natural heating systems
The building is able to heat itself in winter, without the need for any type of artifacts, in two ways:
– Avoiding cooling. Arranging the thermal inertia inside the architectural envelopes, due to its high thermal insulation located on the outside of them, and having large glazed surfaces predominantly on the south facade.
– Warming up naturally. Due to a careful and special bioclimatic design, and its perfect south orientation, the building is heated by greenhouse and direct solar radiation. Similarly, during the night it remains hot due to its high thermal inertia.
1.2. Natural cooling systems
The building is able to cool itself in summer, without the need for any type of artifacts, in four ways:
- Avoiding heating. Due to its adequate thermal insulation located on the outside of the architectural envelopes; arranging most of the glazed surface on the south facade; and having sunscreens for direct and indirect solar radiation (a different type of protection for each of the holes, depending on their orientation).
- The design of the building has been inspired by a forest, having designed a complex structure based on a lattice framework of architectural components that provide complex shaded interior spaces, protecting them from the strong solar radiation outside. This architectural framework forms a double architectural envelope with sunscreens (lacquered glass) creating a perimeter space with an intermediate temperature between the interior and exterior environments. The sunscreens have been arranged in a very studied way in such a way that they allow solar radiation to pass inside the building in winter and instead do not happen in summer.
– Cooling naturally. Due to an architectural air cooling system through underground galleries. The outside ventilation air enters the different interior spaces of the building through a labyrinth of underground galleries. When touring all these galleries, the night air gives all its heat to the ground, and is gradually cooling. In this way the air enters fresh inside the building. Finally, the air travels through all the interior spaces of the building and constantly and constantly refreshes them.
– Accumulating the cool of the night. Due to the high thermal inertia of the building (inside the enclosures) and its adequate insulation (outside the enclosures), the interior of the building is refreshed throughout the night. In addition, due to its high thermal inertia, the building remains cool for almost the entire next day.
- Extracting the hot air from the building by means of two solar chimneys located on the two central courtyards. The air inside the building is warming throughout the day, and therefore it becomes less dense and ascends, and escapes through the solar chimneys located on the roof. In this way a suction current of fresh air is generated that enters the building through the underground galleries, and at the same time extracts the superheated air from the building, keeping it fresh at all times
- Accumulation systems (heat or cool generated by previous systems)
The heat generated during the day (during winter) accumulates inside the building (due to its high inertia), keeping warm at night. Similarly, the cool generated during the night (during the summer) accumulates inside, keeping cool throughout the day.
- Transfer systems (heat or generated cool).
In winter, the heat generated by the greenhouse effect and natural radiation is distributed in the form of hot air throughout the building, due to transfer mechanisms by direct contact and natural radiation. In summer, the fresh air generated in the underground galleries is distributed throughout the building by means of a set of grilles distributed in the perimeter of the building and in interior vertical ducts, by convection and by impulsion. This air current refreshes all the spaces of the building at all times.
- Natural ventilation
The ventilation of the building is done in a continuous and natural way, through the porous architectural envelopes, which allows adequate ventilation, without energy losses. This type of ventilation is possible since all the materials used are breathable (concrete panels, natural stone slabs, cellulose insulation, wooden slats, wood-cement panels, silicate and lime paints, etc.).
Integral waste disposal
The building is constructed without generating any type of waste or emissions since all its elements are prefabricated and assembled with extreme simplicity. On the other hand, the organic waste that is generated during the use of the building is managed optimally, and even the sewage is treated conveniently, and is also used, to fertilize the landscaped roofs.
Self-sufficiency in energy, and zero energy consumption
MAGIC FOREST is energy self-sufficient, since it generates the little energy it needs by itself, and does not need to connect to municipal electricity supply systems.
This energy self-sufficiency has been achieved due to the following complementary strategies:
- The big brands located in the building are aware and their employees want to adopt a simple way of life, avoiding energy wastage, and surrounding themselves with strictly necessary utensils and artifacts.
- An optimal bioclimatic design of the building has been carried out in order to minimize the need for energy. All kinds of bioclimatic strategies have been used to get them to consume the least amount of energy possible, light up naturally, ventilate naturally, and thermally regulate themselves every day of the year. As a result of this outstanding design, the building is able to cool itself in summer, and heat itself in winter. In a complementary way, all the internal spaces of the building light up naturally during the day, every day of the year, without the need for artificial luminaires.
- Only essential appliances have been incorporated into the building, and they are also of very low power consumption. In particular, artificial lighting systems based on LED luminaires with very low energy consumption have been used.
- A set of photovoltaic collectors have been installed on the roof to generate the little electricity that the building needs (50 kilowatts). The energy generated by these photovoltaic sensors is accumulated in robust and high durability batteries.
- A set of thermal solar panels has been incorporated on the roof, to generate the hot sanitary water needed by the building.
MAGIC FOREST is self-sufficient in water, since it generates by itself the water that its occupants need. Therefore, you do not need to connect to municipal water supply systems.
The necessary water (both for human consumption and for irrigation of green areas) is obtained in several complementary ways:
- Groundwater An old irrigation well has been recovered to extract groundwater and groundwater aquifers. This water can be used directly for irrigation.
- Rainwater Rainwater that falls on the roof of the building is collected, filtered properly and taken to an underground tank.
The groundwater is mixed with the rainwater and stored in a buried tank, with a capacity of 100,000 liters, and subsequently filtered and treated properly by means of an ultraviolet radiation system. Subsequently these waters receive adequate treatment, to become potable, through a reverse osmosis system.
- Treatment and use of gray water. The gray waters generated by the building are adequately treated by means of a mechanical oxygenation and purification system. The water thus obtained is mixed with water from aquifers and rainwater, and is used as irrigation of green areas.
- Treatment and use of sewage. Sewage is treated by means of a simple mechanical system and used to make compost for green areas.